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General rules of cooking

Cooking refers to the totality of cooking methods from products of plant and animal origin.

Observance of certain rules when preparing food is called technology .

To be able to prepare tasty and healthy food you need to master the skills of culinary arts and cooking technology.

Cooking is an art. Culinary as they are born, so they become.

However, some basic rules, features and subtleties of culinary art should be known to any self-respecting cook.

Starch is an important food component. But, any culinary specialist should know that starch in raw form is not absorbed by the human body. In order that our body can turn starch into sugar, it is necessary that the starch-containing product goes through the gelatinization stage, which is achieved by heat treatment of the product - in simple terms, the product must be boiled. Passing the heat treatment, increases the digestibility of food and its disinfection takes place. After the product containing starch (flour, rice, potatoes, peas, beans) has passed the stage of gelatinization (it has been welded), in the human body, under the action of special enzymes (amylase) completely converted into sugar and digested.

Thermal processing of food also changes the chemical composition of vegetable and animal protein, which is an essential component of food. To speed up protein metabolism, protein foods (meat, eggs, milk, dough, etc.) need to be heated, which facilitates their digestibility.

Any cook should know that vegetable and animal fats are poorly digested or not digested at all, unless they are processed by special technology. As a rule, this is the curing of fat - its heating to a temperature of 160-180 degrees. When calcining, fat is liquefied, it becomes tender to taste, some toxic substances are destroyed. However, prolonged and excessive heating of fats worsens their taste.

It should be remembered that proper technological processing of products improves their digestibility and preserves vitamins. For example, the cook should remember that vitamins A, D can only be dissolved in fats, and B, C - in water.

Cooking vegetables and fruits softens them, their useful properties decrease, along with water vapor, part of the vitamins evaporate. It happens, on the contrary, that the heat treatment of certain products contributes to the improvement of their taste and useful qualities.

Fire also changes the appearance of products. When cooking, the solids soften, and with hot - soft harden.

There are many nuances of cooking a particular dish. All of them can not be remembered at once, but as a result of frequent cooking, the culinary master gets an invaluable experience that helps him to prepare delicious and healthy dishes in the future. For example, in order to weld white rice porridge, it is necessary to add a few drops of a solution of citric acid, which will not allow the white pigment in the rice composition to turn yellow during cooking. In order to avoid the formation of a cloudy film when cooking soup or broth, a few drops of fat are added. To ensure that the clarified potatoes do not darken (oxidized by air, the phenol contained in the potato), which impairs the taste and appearance of the product, it is poured cold water. However, do not keep the peeled potatoes in the water for long, as it loses the starch and neutralizes vitamin C.

But, the cook's area of ​​responsibility is not limited to cooking. He is also responsible for the beautiful decoration of cooked meals when served to the table, as well as for compliance with all sanitary and hygienic standards during cooking.

When preparing dishes, it is necessary to take into account climatic conditions, seasonality, tastes of customers, national, specific nature of nutrition of different nationalities, table setting features. 

 

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