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Nanotechnology in the creation of new technology

N.I. Romancheva, Candidate of Technical Sciences Moscow State Technical University of Civil Aviation, Moscow 
N.K. Yurkov, doctor of technical sciences 
I.V. Romanchev, Candidate of Technical Sciences Penza State University, Penza

The research carried out in the field of nanotechnology has already allowed the development of technologies for the production of devices and their components necessary for the creation, processing and manipulation of atoms, molecules and particles with dimensions in the range of 1 ... 100 nm [1]. In nanoscale, the usual, macroscopic technologies are often inapplicable, and microscopic phenomena, usually negligible, become much more significant - the properties and interactions of individual atoms and molecules or aggregates of molecules, quantum effects.

The use of advanced scientific results in nanotechnology makes it possible to refer it to high technologies. However, until now new areas, especially in molecular technology, have been little studied.

The development of modern electronics is proceeding along the path of reducing the dimensions and lowering their energy intensity. At the same time, classical methods of production approach their natural economic and technological barrier, when the size of the device decreases slightly, and economic costs increase exponentially. Therefore, nanotechnology is the next logical step in the development of electronics and other high-end industries.

One of the methods used to study nanoobjects is atomic force microscopy. Using an atomic silicon microscope, one can not only see individual atoms, but also selectively act on them, in particular, move atoms along the surface.

For example, in IBM's research center, by successively moving the xenon atoms on the surface of a single crystal of nickel, it was possible to lay out three letters of the company's logo using 35 xenon atoms [2].

When performing such manipulations, a number of technical difficulties arise. In particular, it is necessary to create conditions for an ultrahigh vacuum (10 ... 11 Torr), it is necessary to cool the substrate and the microscope to ultra-low temperatures (4 ... 10 K), the substrate surface must be atomically clean and atomically smooth.

The substrate is cooled to reduce the surface diffusion of the deposited atoms.

Particles with a size of 1 ... 1000 nm, commonly referred to as "nanoparticles", can have completely new properties. For example, nanoparticles of some materials have very good catalytic and adsorption properties, and other materials acquire surprising optical properties. An example of this is the ultra-thin films of organic materials, which are used for the production of solar batteries. Such batteries, although they have a relatively low quantum efficiency, are more cheap and mechanically flexible. Artificial nanoparticles can interact with natural objects that have nanosized particles, such as proteins, nucleic acids, etc. Thoroughly purified nanoparticles can self-align themselves in certain structures. Such a structure, containing strictly ordered nanoparticles, is also capable of exhibiting unusual properties.

Typically, researchers divide nanoobjects into 3 main classes: three-dimensional particles obtained by exploding conductors, plasma synthesis, restoration of thin films, etc .; two-dimensional objects - films that are a product of molecular layering, CVD, ALD, ion-layering, etc .; one-dimensional objects - whiskers as a result of molecular layering, the introduction of substances into cylindrical micropores, etc. Separately it is necessary to allocate nanocomposites - the materials received by introduction of nanoparticles in any matrix of substance.

At present, only the microlithography method, which allows the creation of flat island objects with a size of 50 nm on the surface of matrices, is relatively widely used. This method is used in electronics. Methods CVD and ALD are mainly used to create micron films. Other methods are mainly used for scientific purposes. Of particular note are the methods of ionic and molecular layering, because with their help it is possible to create real monolayers.

One of the most important issues facing nanotechnology is how to get molecules to group together in a certain way, to organize themselves to eventually obtain new materials or devices. The desire of scientists to implement such processes in artificially created systems was so great that it led to the formation at the turn of the 80's and 90's. a separate field of chemistry, called the French scientist J.M. Len (Nobel Prize winner) supramolecular chemistry. Supramolecular chemistry does not study individual molecules, but interactions between molecules, which, organized in a certain way, can form a new substance. In nature, there are such systems and similar processes are carried out. Thus, biopolymers are known that can be organized into special structures. Another example is proteins,

Already, there is a method of synthesis that uses the specific properties of the DNA molecule. For example, a molecule A or B is connected to one end of the complementary DNA. As a result, two substances are obtained: -A and -B, where - a conditional image of a single DNA molecule. If these substances are mixed, hydrogen bonds form between two single strands of DNA, which attract molecules A and B to each other. Conditionally, the resulting connection looks like = AB. A DNA molecule can be easily removed after the end of the process. In addition to atomic assembly of molecules, nanotechnology makes it possible to produce new methods of recording and reading information.

Nanotechnology already plays a decisive role in the computer industry - because the dimensions of transistors are measured by nanometers. In 2007, the industry entered the 45-nanometer line, in 2009 it is supposed to be 32-nanometer, and in 2011 - 22-nanometer. Perhaps 16-nanometer will be the last step to miniaturization, because to form a transistor in a thinner layer of a semiconductor (for existing technologies based on field-effect transistors) is very difficult for fundamental physical reasons. One of the promising directions in nanoelectronics is the use of nanowires, nanometer threads.

Another base material can be considered a graphene film. In October 2004, the University of Manchester (The University of Manchester) received a small amount of material called graphene - a monolayer of carbon atoms. Graphene can be used as a detector for the arrival and exit of single molecules (NO 2). Graphene has a high mobility at room temperature, so it can be a promising material that can replace silicon in integrated circuits. New nanomaterials can become the basis of future generations of processors, including quantum processors - devices that work with 2-quantum bits (qubits). In 2007, Intel announced the development of a new prototype processor, containing the smallest structural element about 45 nm in size. In the future, the company intends to achieve structural elements of not more than 5 nm in size. Intel's main competitor, AMD, has also been using nanotechnology, developed jointly with IBM, for the production of its processors. A distinctive feature of Intel's development is the use of an additional insulating layer [3],

Undoubted interest is caused by the development of memristors - resistors, which remember the strength of the current flowing through them [4]. A memristor can be compared to a pipe whose diameter depends on the fluid head and flow direction. As long as the liquid does not flow, the pipe "remembers" its previous state (see the figure). The memristor can become the basis for the "memory" of artificial intelligence devices - it will organize neural networks, creating and breaking connections between nanodevices *.

In early 2000, thanks to rapid progress in the technology of nanoparticle manufacturing, prerequisites were created for the development of a new field of nanotechnology - nanoplasmonics [5].

Plasmons are collective vibrations of free electrons in a metal. A characteristic feature of the excitation of plasmons is the so-called plasmon resonance, first predicted at the beginning of the 20th century. The wavelength of plasmon resonance, for example, for a spherical silver particle with a diameter of 50 nm is approximately 400 nm, which indicates the possibility of detecting nanoparticles well beyond the boundaries of the diffraction limit (the radiation wavelength is much larger than the particle size).

It was possible to transmit electromagnetic radiation along a chain of metallic nanoparticles by excitation of plasmon oscillations.

In the development of nanotechnology, a stage has come when the first record results showing potential potentialities in this area are achieved, and technology that can be used to create nanoelectronic circuits is not yet available. The main reason is the impossibility of obtaining conductive nanostructures on the insulating surface of a dielectric substrate. Nevertheless, there are certain achievements.

So, in July 2006, Altair Nanotechnologies received the first order for the supply of lithium-ion accumulators for electric vehicles. The order came from the company Phoenix Motorcars (USA). In 2009, the company plans to produce 20,000 electric vehicles, 50,000 in 2010 and 100,000 in 2011.

Australian scientists proposed to make bulletproof vests from materials based on carbon nanotubes. The latter possess a bullet-repelling property - under the impact of the bullet the thin tubes bend, and then restore the shape with energy release.

The world leaders in the total volume of investment in the sphere of nanotechnology were Japan and the United States. Only in 2004, Japan increased the cost of developing new nanotechnologies by 126% compared to 2003 (total investment was $ 4 billion), and the United States increased by 122% ($ 3.4 billion).

In 2007, the Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies (GC "Rosnanotech") was established to support the implementation of the state policy in the field of nanotechnology, the development of innovative infrastructure in the field of nanotechnology, the implementation of projects for the creation of promising nanotechnologies and the nano industry, and the Federal Target Program "Development of the Nanoindustry Infrastructure in the Russian Federation for 2008-2010 ". The goal of the program is to create in the Russian Federation a modern infrastructure of a national nanotechnology network for developing and realizing the potential of the domestic nanoindustry. The volume of financing within the program is 27.7 billion rubles. [5]. In 2008, Russia's funding for the development of nanotechnology reached the level of the United States.

While in the field of nanotechnology the best in Russia remains the project of the Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies (RUSNANO) and SITRONICS for the production of chips. RUSNANO can invest up to $ 500 million in this project. Chips for new smartphones are a very capacious market, the smartphone segment is growing by 20 ... 25% annually [6].

In April 2000, RUSNANO, the Committee for Economic Development, Industrial Policy and Trade of St. Petersburg (KERPP & T) and leading experts of the innovation market discussed at the workshop the concept of creating an infrastructure nanotechnology center in St. Petersburg - Nanofab.

RUSNANO and KERPP & T held three seminars with innovative and investment companies of the city on the issues of project financing. Also an agreement was reached on joint holding of the Russian Innovation Week, where the main events will be the Second St. Petersburg International Innovation Forum and the Second International Nanotechnology Forum, which opens on October 6, 2009.

Its main tasks will be the demonstration of the opportunities provided by the development of nanotechnologies and the launch of innovative processes in the country's economy for social and economic modernization of the regions, a principled increase in the efficiency of individual sectors of the national economy. The Forum participants are focused on finding effective solutions for transferring advanced technologies and promoting Russian nanotechnology products to new markets [7].

In electronics, super-fast computers will be created not only with conventional architectures, but also neurocomputers, ultra-fast functional devices with record capacity, long-expected emitters with a tunable spectrum and wide-band photodetectors having an efficiency of tens of percent will be synthesized in optoelectronics.


Literature

1. Shapovalov A., Kornysheva A., Kozenko A., Grib N. Nanotechnologies were energized // Kommersant. - 2007. - No. 163 (37). 
2. Eigler DM, Schweizer EK // Nature. - 1990. - V. 344. - P. 524. 
3. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v344/n6266/abs/344524a0.html 

4. http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki / Silicon_on_insulator 
5. New Scientist. 08.07.2009. 
6. http://physorg.com 

7. http://Newsru.com 
8. http://www.rusnanotekh.ru (official site of the GC "Rosnanotech").

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