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The history of the development of psychology as a science

The history of the development of psychology as a science , one of the most common questions asked by students in the study of the subject. There are a lot of misconceptions on this topic, the reason for this can be the media, the lack of knowledge of people and even history. Let's try together to dispel all myths.

Psychology in the applied and academic field, the science that studies the human mind and behavior. Psychological research seeks to understand and explain how we think, act and feel. People turning to psychology includes the treatment of mental illness, increased productivity, self-help, motivation, and other areas that affect the health and condition of a person in everyday life.

The history of the development of psychology as a science - early psychology

Psychology originated from philosophy and biology. These two subjects exist from the time of the early Greek thinkers such as Aristotle and Socrates. And the word  "psychology"  comes from the Greek words  ????  - what does “soul” mean   and  ????? - "mind" .

Department of science

The history of the development of psychology as a science and the emergence of psychology as a separate and independent field of study can be considered the foundation of the first experimental laboratory in psychology, its creator was Wilhelm Wundt, Leipzig, Germany, 1879.

Wundt's work focused on the description of the structure, that is, what our mind consists of. This study was mainly based on the analysis of sensations and feelings, using self-analysis, a rather subjective process. Wundt believed that by means of certain tests he would be able to accurately determine the mental processes that are accompanied by feelings, sensations and thoughts.

Schools of psychology

Throughout the history of the development of psychology as a science, the number of different views, to explain the human thinking and behavior increased. All directions prevailed in one or another period of time. Many characterize them as competing with each other, but in one way or another, each direction has contributed to our understanding of science and psychology. Below I have cited some of these directions:

  1. Structuralism
  2. Functionalism
  3. Psychoanalysis
  4. Behaviorism
  5. Humanism
  6. Cognitive

Modern psychology

Today, psychologists prefer to use more objective scientific methods to understand, explain, and predict human behavior. Psychological studies are highly structured, starting with a hypothesis, we turn to empirical methods. Considering psychology as a discipline, it can be divided into two main areas: academic psychology and applied psychology.

Academic psychology focuses on the study of various sub-topics including personality psychology, social behavior and human development. These psychologists conduct basic research that seeks to expand our theoretical knowledge, while other researchers carry out applied research that seeks to solve everyday problems.


The history of the development of psychology as a science is wide and diverse. The number of different sub-themes and special directions is increasing every year. The following are some of the main areas of study and application of psychology:

Abnormal psychology  is the study of abnormal behavior and psychopathology. This special field specializes in the research and treatment of various mental disorders and is associated with psychotherapy and clinical psychology.

Biological psychology , also known as biopsychology, studies how biological processes affect consciousness and behavior. This area is closely related to neurology and uses tools such as MRI and PET, with which we can find head injuries or various abnormalities, as well as explore the  potential of the human brain .

Clinical psychology is  focused on the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. It is also considered the largest area in the history of the development of psychology as a science.

Cognitive psychology is the study of the processes of human thinking and cognition. Cognitive studies of psychologists deal with topics such as attention, memory, perception, decision making, problem solving, and language.

Comparative psychology  is a branch of psychology that studies animal behavior. This type of research can also lead to a deeper and broader understanding of human psychology.

 Developmental psychology is an area that looks at human growth and development throughout life. Theories often focus on the development of cognitive abilities, morality, social functioning of the personality and other areas of life.

Judicial psychology  - is an applied field, focused on the use of psychological research and principles in the legal and criminal justice systems.

Industrial and Organizational Psychology is a  section that uses psychological research to improve work efficiency, employee selection, product design improvement, and improved usability.

Personality psychology  - examines the various elements that make up the individual personality. Famous theories of personality include the structural model of Freud and the Big Five theory from the section on the history of the development of psychology as a science. I also want to share with you an article on the topic:  music and personality .

Schools of Psychology  is a branch of psychology that works in the education system to help children with emotional, social and scientific issues.

Social psychology  is a scientific discipline that uses scientific methods to study social influence, social perception, and social interaction. Social psychology  studies a variety of subjects, including group behavior, social perception, leadership, nonverbal behavior, conformity, aggression and prejudice.

It is also possible to note family psychology, which gives  advice on how to save a family  and studies many other many important questions.

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